Mammalian E3 is an essential mitochondrial enzyme responsible for catalyzing the terminal reaction in the oxidative catabolism of several metabolites. E3 is a key regulator of metabolic fuel selection as a component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc). E3 regulates PDHc activity by altering the affinity of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, an inhibitor of the enzyme complex, through changes in reduction and acetylation state of lipoamide moieties set by the NAD(+)/NADH ratio. Thus, an accurate kinetic model of E3 is needed to predict overall mammalian PDHc activity.
Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) is a well-known seleno-enzyme that protects cells from oxidative stress (e.g., lipid peroxidation and oxidation of other cellular proteins and macromolecules), by catalyzing the reduction of harmful peroxides (e.g., hydrogen peroxide: H2O2) with reduced glutathione (GSH). However, the catalytic mechanism of GPx kinetics is not well characterized in terms of a mathematical model.